Which of the following is an amorphous solid?
b) Quartx glass
c) Chrome alum
d) Silicon carbide
b) Quartx glass
It is composed of particles with irregular shapes, and there is no long-range order in the particles of the amorphous solid.
- Intermolecular forces are uniformly distributed throughout the crystalline solids, allowing them to maintain their regular ordered arrays of constituents.
- Crystalline solids are distinguished by their sharp edges and faces, the ability to refract x-rays, and the tendency to have high melting temperatures.
- Amorphous solids are solids that do not have a well-defined interior structure. Rubber, plastic, and gels are all examples of amorphous solids, as is amorphous glass.
- Amorphous solids crumble into irregular fragments with irregular edges when they are broken.
The difference between a crystalline and an amorphous solid is as follows:
The following table summarises the differences between crystalline and amorphous solids.
|Properties||Crystalline solid||Amorphous solid|
|Structure||The constituent particles, atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in regular and definite three-dimensional patterns. For example, sodium chloride, diamond, sugar, etc.||The constituent particles are arranged in irregular three-dimensional patterns.|
|Cutting with a knife||Gives clean, sharp cleavage.||Unclean cleavage.|
|Compressibility||Rigid and incompressible||Usually rigid and can not be compressed to any appreciable extent.|
|Melting point||They have a sharp and definite melting point.||The melting point is not definite. Melt over a range of temperatures.|
|Heat of fusion||Definite||Not definite.|
|Physical properties||These are anisotropic in that their physical properties are not identical in all directions.||These are isotropic, that is their physical properties are identical in all directions.|