Group 15 Elements: The Nitrogen family, which includes nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth elements, is also known as Group 15. The Representative Elements, which are located on the right side of the main periodic table, is also known as the p-block elements.
The contemporary periodic table, devised by Dimitri Mendeleev, lists all known elements according to their atomic number, which is unique to each element. The periodic table was created as a result of such an arrangement. The items with comparable qualities were grouped together in a column.
Group 15 Elements: Periodic Trends
As you walk through the Group 15 elements, starting with the lightest and ending with the heaviest, you’ll see a general flow in attributes as you move down the sequence. For example, nitrogen is a non-metal gas, but as we progress down the group, we meet metalloids, and finally metal, such as Bismuth. These periodic table patterns aid in the understanding of atom behavior as well as the prediction of new elements.
|Atomic mass (AMU)||14.01||30.97||74.92||121.76||209.98|
|Valence electron configuration||[He]2s2 2p3||[Ne]3s2 3p3||[Ar]3d10 4s24p3||[Kr]4d10 5s25p3||[Xe]4f14 5d106s26p3|
Boiling point (°C)
|Density (g/cm3) at 25°C||1.15(g/L)||1.8||5.7||6.68||9.79|
|Atomic radius (pm)||56||98||114||133||143|
|First Ionization energy (kJ/mol)||1402||1012||947||834||703|
|Common Oxidation state(s)||-3 to +5||+5, +3, -3||+5, +3||+5, +3||+3|
|Ionic radius (pm)||146(-3)||212(-3)||58(+3)||76(+3)||103(+3)|
The following sections describe some of the trends in the current periodic table with regard to group 15 elements of the p-Block elements.
1. Configuration of Electronics
- The electronic configuration of the valence shell has a significant impact on how an element behaves. Group 15 elements have the valence electron shell structure ns2np3.
- Because all of the group 15 elements have the same arrangement, they are comparable.
- This group’s s-orbital is totally filled, while the p-orbitals are half-filled, resulting in an extremely stable configuration.
2. Radii of Atoms and Ions
- If you look at the electrical arrangement of elements in the table above, you’ll note that new orbitals are added to the atom with each step downward.
- The atomic and ionic radii of group 15 elements are both increased as a result of the addition of new orbitals.
- However, we can see that the ionic radius increases just a little from Arsenic to Bismuth.
- The presence of totally filled d and/or f orbitals in heavier members explains this.
3. Enthalpy of Ionization
- Ionization The amount of energy required to remove one electron from the atom’s outermost orbit is referred to as energy.
- This is a measurement of how tightly the nucleus holds on to the electron.
- The stronger the bond between the electron and the nucleus, the more energy is required.
- The radius of the atom rises as we travel down the group, and as a result, the Ionization energy reduces due to the weaker hold of the nucleus.
- Electronegativity is a term that describes the ability to attract electrons.
- With increasing atomic size, the electronegativity value drops down the group.
- As we advance down the group, the distance between the nucleus and the valence shell becomes longer.
5. Physical Characteristics
- In a polyatomic state, all of the group’s members exist.
- The first element, nitrogen, is a gas, but as you continue down the list, the metallic aspect of the elements becomes more prominent.
- Non-metals include nitrogen and phosphorus, metalloids include arsenic and antimony, and metals include bismuth.
- The decrease in ionization enthalpy and increase in atomic size is responsible for these alterations.
- Boiling points also exhibit an increasing trend as you proceed down the scale.
- All other elements, with the exception of nitrogen, have allotropes.
6. Chemical Characteristics
- ns2 np3 is the configuration of the valence shells of the p-Block components.
- As a result, the elements here can either lose 5 or gain 3 electrons.
- These elements’ most common oxidation states are -3, +3, and +5.
- The tendency to gain three electrons to generate a -3 oxidation state diminishes down the group as the ionization enthalpy and electronegativity lowers due to increasing atomic radius.
- Bismuth, in fact, rarely forms compounds with a -3 oxidation state.
- Due to the inert pair effect, the stability of the +5 state reduces as we go down, whereas the stability of the +3 state improves.
Family of Apatite
Apatite families are a series of isomorphous hexagonal phosphate minerals that are similar in appearance. Fluorapatite, Chlorapatite, and Hydroxylapatite make up the primary apatite group. Calcium phosphate, which is also known as apatite, is found in the teeth and bones of many animals, including humans.
Fluorapatite, Chlorapatite, and Hydroxylapatite are the three main types of apatite. Pyromorphite, Mimetite, and Vanadinite are among the minerals in the extended Apatite supergroup. Apatite is the primary supplier of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for plants. As a result, apatite is a crucial component of phosphate fertilizers. The majority of phosphorus in fertilizer originates from phosphate rock, which is nearly entirely mined for this purpose.
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