Let us understand the important difference between C3 and C4 plants.
Character C3 plants C4 plants
Definition C3 plants use the C3 pathway or Calvin cycle for the dark reaction of photosynthesis. C4 plants use the C4 pathway or Hatch-Slack Pathway for the dark reaction of photosynthesis.
Season These plants are cool-season plants, commonly found in cool and wet areas. These plants are warm-season plants, commonly found in dry areas.
Product The product found in the C3 cycle is a 3 carbon compound – phosphoglyceric acid. The product found in the C4 cycle is a 4 carbon compound – Oxaloacetic acid.
Presence 95% of total green plants on earth are C3 plants. About 5% of plants are C4 plants on earth.
Conditions These plants are abundant in temperate conditions. These plants are abundant in tropical conditions.
Kranz anatomy Leaves do not have Kranz anatomy. Leaves have Kranz anatomy.
Chloroplast In this, the bundle sheath cells do not contain chloroplasts. In this, the bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts.
CO2 acceptors C3 plants possess only one CO2 acceptor. C4 plants possess two CO2 acceptors.
Secondary acceptor C3 plants do not consist of secondary CO2 acceptor. C4 plants consist of secondary CO2 acceptor.
Photosynthesis It performs photosynthesis only when stomata are open. It performs photosynthesis even when stomata are close.
Peripheral reticulum The chloroplasts do not consist of the peripheral reticulum. The chloroplasts consist of the peripheral reticulum.
Temperature The optimum temperature for photosynthesis is very low. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis is high.
Efficiency C3 plants are less efficient in photosynthesis. C4 plants are more efficient in photosynthesis.
Photorespiration The photorespiration rate is very high. Photorespiration is absent.
CO2 fixation It is slow in C3 plants. It is comparatively faster in C3 plants.
Mesophyll Cell In this, the dark reaction takes place only in the mesophyll cells. In this, mesophyll cells will only perform the initial steps of the C4 cycle. main steps are carried out in bundle sheath cells.
CO2 Composition The carbon dioxide composition point is high in these plants. The carbon dioxide composition point is low in these plants.
Growth The growth occurs when the soil temperature is between 4-7 degrees. The growth occurs when the soil temperature is between 16-21 degree.
Example Wheat, Oats, Rice, Sunflower, Cotton. Maize, Sugarcane, Amaranthus.