1. What is a cell?
a) smallest and advanced unit of life
b) smallest and basic unit of life
c) largest and basic unit of life
d) largest and advanced unit of life
Explanation: A cell is the smallest and most fundamental unit of life, responsible for all of life’s operations. All living beings have cells that serve as structural, functional, and biological units.
2. Which of the following is a functional unit of a body?
Explanation: Because all living beings are made up of cells, the cell is recognized as the structural and functional unit of life.
3. What is cell biology?
a) Study of cell division only
b) Study of cancerous cell
c) Study of cell structure and function
d) Study of metaphase of a cell
Explanation: The study of cell structure and function is known as cell biology, and it is based on the idea that the cell is the most basic unit of life. Concentrating on the cell allows for a more in-depth understanding of the tissues and organisms that cells make up.
4. Which of the following is used by cells to interact with other cells?
a) Cell tubules
b) Cell junctions
c) Cell adhesions
d) Cell detectors
Explanation: Cell junctions are used by cells to interact with each other in certain tissues. These are stable interactions made for the development and function of the cell.
5. In which of the following type of cells the cell junction is abundant?
a) Cardiac cells
b) Prokaryotic cells
c) Hepatic cells
d) Epithelial cells
Explanation: The cell junction is abundant in epithelial cells, which provide barrier and control over the transport in the cell. It is otherwise known as intercellular bridge, which is made up of multiprotein complexes.
6. What is epithelial mesenchymal transistion?
a) Loss of migration and gain of adhesion
b) Formation of mesenchymal cells
c) Loss of adhesion and gain of migration
d) Lysis of cell
Explanation: Epithelial mesenchymal transition is the property of cells losing adhesion and gaining migration. It is highly useful in the pluripotency of stem cells in organ development.
7. In which of the following type of cells the Gap junctions are absent?
a) Sperm cells
b) Brain cells
c) Reproductive cells
d) Cardiac cells
Explanation: Gap junctions are absent in all the cell that are motile. Gap junctions are also absent in erythrocytes. These motile cells do not have a necessity for the passage of molecules or ions.
8. In which of the following type of cells Sarcoplasmic reticulum is found?
a) muscle cells
b) liver cells
c) kidney cells
Explanation: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum sequesters calcium ions within the cytoplasm of the cell and controlled release of Ca2+ from the SER of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells triggers contraction. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in the aforementioned cells is known as sarcoplasmic reticulum.
9. Which of the following are phagocytic cells?
a) neutrophils, mast cells
b) mast cells, macrophages
c) mast cells, antibodies
d) neutrophils, macrophages
Explanation: Neutrophils and macrophages are the phagocytic cells that ingest potentially dangerous microbes; the microbes are then inactivated by the low pH of lysosomes present in these cells followed by their enzymatic digestion.
10. Which of the following is known as the powerhouse of a cell?
Explanation: The mitochondria, also known as the “powerhouse of the cell,” are the organelles that produce energy within the cell. The mitochondria are the major site for ATP generation and play a significant role in cellular respiration.
11. Which of the following is known as the suicide bag of a cell?
b) Golgi Complex
Explanation: The digesting enzymes are found in lysosomes. When lysosomes rupture, digestive enzymes are released, which begin digesting the body’s own cells. That’s why they’re referred to as suicidal bags.
12. Lysosomes are produced by which of the following cell organelles?
b) Endoplasmic Reticulum
c) Golgi Complex
Explanation: They are produced by the Golgi body. The fusion of vesicles from the Golgi complex with endosomes produces lysosomes.
13. Which of the following cell organelle is responsible for transporting, modifying, and packaging proteins and lipids?
b) Endoplasmic Reticulum
c) Golgi Complex
Explanation: The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, is a factory where proteins from the ER are further processed and sorted before being transported to their final destinations: secretion, lysosomes, or the plasma membrane.
14. Which of the following cell doesn’t contain a cell wall?
a) Plant cell
d) Animal cell
Explanation: Plant cells require a cell wall, but animal cells do not, as plants require a stiff framework in order to grow up and out. Cell membranes are present in all cells and are flexible. Plant cells only have the shapes of their cell walls, but animal cells can have a variety of shapes.
15. Which of the following cell doesn’t contain a cell wall?
a) George N. Papanicolaou
b) George Emil Palade
c) Robert Hooke
d) None of the above
Explanation: Dr. George Emil Palade, a Nobel Laureate, is known as the “Father of Cell Biology” for his pioneering work in the subject. He was a pioneer in the use of the electron microscope, which he used to discover ribosomes and secretory protein activity.